U.N.G.A., 67th Session, 60th Plenary Meeting, pp. [49] Amnesty Intl. [3] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. 20, 2010. [5] In 2018, for example, North Korea used the death penalty “extensively.” [6] [35] North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art. 67, Mar. [34] North Korean authorities often use torture to extract confessions, and many persons have been executed without receiving the benefit of a fair trial [35] – or indeed, any trial at all. Also, the State makes every member of a household accountable for the conduct of his immediate kin (although it is unlikely that the state executes kin for a relative’s crimes), while some criminal suspects escape punishment because of their family background. [25] In October, South Korean media reported there had been 64 public executions in the first nine months of 2016. [4] Yaron Steinbuch, North Korean Official Reportedly Executed for Breaking Coronavirus Quarantine, New York Post, https://nypost.com/2020/02/13/north-korean-official-reportedly-executed-for-breaking-coronavirus-quarantine/, Feb. 13, 2020. 20, Dec. 19, 2007. [34] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. [17] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2012, p. 23, ACT 50/001/2013, Apr. [60] Yonhap News, N. Korea executed at least three over cannibalism: think tank, http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/northkorea/2012/05/10/76/0401000000AEN20120510005200315F.HTML, May 10, 2012. In practice, the government executes individuals without meaningful recourse to judicial process. A/HRC/22/57, Feb. 1, 2013. [9] The five offenses were (1) plots against national sovereignty, (2) terrorism, (3) treason against the Motherland by citizens, (4) treason against the people and (5) murder. 278, Mar. La peine de mort - Etats-Unis. At least 17. Ces dernières années, on y avait recours au Bangladesh, au Botswana, en Corée du Nord, en Égypte, en Iran, en Irak, au Japon, en Malaisie, à Singapour, au Soudan et en Syrie. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. 10, 2019. ??? [32] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. Meurtre avec circonstances aggravantes.The Korea Institute for National Unification, based in South Korea, reported that a man was executed for killing a preteen girl and eating her flesh in December 2009 during Pyongyang’s currency reform that led to massive inflation and food shortages. [7] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. [5] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions in 2018, p. 24, ACT 50/9870/2019, Apr. [24] Treason is an expansive offense subjecting ill-defined crimes such as “ideological divergence,” “opposing socialism,” and “counterrevolutionary crimes.” [25] An “especially serious” case of participating in an anti-state revolution, riot, demonstration or raid is punishable by death. 30, 2010. Given the level of secrecy surrounding the application of the death penalty in North Korea, reliable data are scarce. [22] Jane Onyanga-Omara, Report: N. Korea executes officials for ‘enraging’ Kim Jong Un, http://www.cnbc.com/2017/02/27/report-n-korea-executes-officials-for-enraging-kim-jong-un.html, CNBC, Feb. 27, 2017. [42] Joe Tacopino, North Korea executes top official after poor diplomatic performance: report, Daily News, http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/2010/07/20/2010-07-20_north_korea_executes_top_official_after_poor_diplomatic_performance_report.html, Jul. of State, 2012 Human Rights Report: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Trial Procedures, http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012/eap/204210.htm, Apr. [20] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Torture, Death Penalty and Abductions, ASA 24/003/2009, Aug. 2, 2009. ?? [64] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Torture, Death Penalty and Abductions, ASA 24/003/2009, Aug. 2, 2009. Because of the secrecy surrounding capital punishment, we are not able to offer a reliable estimate. [28] A North Korean citizen who severely oppresses the people’s movement towards national unification or liberation from imperialism, or betrays the people and sides with the imperialists is also subject to the death penalty. CCPR/CO/72/PRK, Aug. 27, 2001. 16- 17, U.N. Doc. A/67/457/Add.2 (Part II), Dec. 8, 2012. [56] We conclude that while there is no mandatory death penalty in North Korea, the death penalty is applied in an arbitrary and perfunctory fashion and is largely a tool of oppression used by the executive. Ha Yoon Ah, Chagang Province Forestry Official Executed for Illegal Corn Farm, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/chagang-province-forestry-official-executed-illegal-corn-farm/, Apr. [14] He also pointed out the vagueness of the terms used in death penalty provisions that allow for the imposition of the death penalty to be subjective and arbitrary. While in many cases courts do not exercise any meaningful discretion, this is not because the death penalty is mandatory, but rather because the use of the death penalty in North Korea is often essentially an extrajudicial function. [4] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, Punishment and torture in the camps, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. [21] Ha Yoon Ah, Fortune teller executed by firing squad in North Korea, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/fortune-teller-executed-by-firing-squad/, Dec. 19, 2018. [24] David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, p. 360, Oxford University Press, 2009. [20] Kim Yoo Jin, Serial rapist publicly executed in North Korea, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/serial-rapist-publicly-executed-in-north-korea/, Dec. 10, 2018. A/69/993, Jul. A/HRC/25/63, Feb. 7, 2014. ?? 7, 2014. [10] Amnesty Intl., North Korea: Political Prison Camps, ASA 24/001/2011, May 3, 2011. [10] [33] The Library of Congress, A Country Study: North Korea, The Judiciary, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+kp0162), Jun., 1993. [8], Enlèvement n’ayant pas entraîné la mort.An “especially serious” case of kidnapping is punishable by death. 19, 2010. À la fin de l’année, la Cour constitutionnelle s’est emparée à nouveau de la question de la peine de mort. 9, 2010. Euan McKirdy, North Korea executed 5 security officials, South Korea says, http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/28/asia/north-korea-officials-executed/, CNN, Feb. 28, 2017. 90, U.N. Doc. Les modes d’exécution des condamnés varient d’un pays à l’autre. [72] A media report in June 2012 stated that four of 44 North Korean fugitives who had been repatriated from China were executed. 53, Mar. 6, 2015. [15] North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art. [83] Amnesty Intl., Death Sentences and Executions 2009, p. 15, ACT 50/001/2010, Mar. [37] North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art. Fax: +82-2-723-1671 [28], At least 3. [14] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in North Korea, para. [7] The 2010 Constitution, however, states that the prosecutor’s office assures government compliance with the Constitution. 18, 2010. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. 19, Dec. 19, 2007. In a report issued in September 2011, the UN Secretary-General expressed concern over the vagueness of political offense provisions that could lead to the subjective and arbitrary imposition of the death penalty, as well as the inadequate prison camp conditions. Radio Free Asia, North Korea Stages Public Executions to Strengthen ‘Social Order’, https://www.rfa.org/english/news/korea/executions-04102019175353.html, Apr. [33] The Central Court (which consists of a presiding judge, two vice-presidential judges, and an unknown number of other judges) has original jurisdiction over serious crimes against the State, so there is no appeal from a capital conviction for such a crime. [29] North Korea Criminal Code, art. Mun Dong Hui, Amateur surgeons executed, woman murdered in Pyongyang, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/amateur-surgeons-executed-woman-murdered-pyongyang/, Nov. 26, 2019. [9]. [10] North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, arts. [17] The Washington Post, North Korea’s Kim Vents Fury as Pressure Mounts Over Virus and Economy, South says, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/coronavirus-north-korea-executions-kim/2020/11/27/0156d35e-3063-11eb-9dd6-2d0179981719_story.html, Nov. 27, 2020. 3, 1950, last amended Oct. 19, 2009. [80] [49] Extrajudicial executions are not uncommon in political prison camps where tens of thousands are detained. It is likely that, as with other death-eligible offenses, a standard of “seriousness” attached to a crime of deliberate killing and left to a court’s discretion is sufficient to trigger a capital sentence. 60, U.N. Doc. (This question was last updated on June 3, 2019.). [10] David Johnson & Franklin Zimring, The Next Frontier, p. 363, Oxford University Press, 2009. [9] In North Korea’s execution tally, we include all reports of the government killing someone as punishment for any offense that is death-eligible under North Korean law. [8] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, para. 28, 2011. 28, 2011. [11] U.N.G.A., Human Rights Council, Report of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, para. [31] ADPAN, Lethal Injustice in Asia, p. 17, ASA 01/022/2011, Dec. 6, 2011. 16, 2020. 14, Dec. 19, 2007. [5] North Korea Addendum to the Criminal Code for Ordinary Crimes, art. 54-71 U.N. Doc. Jack Kim, North Korea Executes Official for Blunder, Reuters, http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE62H0DT20100318, Mar. U.S. Dept. 9, 2010. [37] However, the 2010 Constitution states that the prosecutor’s office assures government compliance with the Constitution. [18] In March 2013, the U.N. Human Rights Council established the Commission of Inquiry on Human Rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea with a mandate to investigate widespread human rights abuses. [15] U.N.G.A., 69th Session, Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. Ha Yoon Ah, N. Korean Businessman Executed for Refusing to Buy Gov’t Bonds, Daily NK, https://www.dailynk.com/english/north-korean-businessman-executed-refusing-buy-government-bonds/, May 12, 2020. [15] However, media and NGO reports have corroborated that the number of death-eligible crimes is much larger in practice. Nouveau témoignage d'horreur en provenance de la Corée du Nord. Cette méthode, utilisée la première fois pour la mise à mort d’un Chinois, Gee Jon , exécuté pour assassinat le 8 février 1924 au Nevada, s’est généralisée dans de nombreux États de … 19, 2013. [25] U.N.G.A., 63rd Session, 70th Plenary Meeting, pp. Amnesty International reports that there were at least 15 executions, but the true figure is estimated to be much higher. [1] BBC, Country Profiles: North Korea Profile, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15258878, May 23, 2013. ??] A/62/PV.76, Dec. 18, 2007. [12] U.N.G.A., 71st Session, Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, paras. Dans la plupart de ces pays, le condamné est amené sur une trappe, la corde est passée autour de … [8] Before the executions, a North Korea official with a megaphone read the charges aloud and denounced them for being “traitors of the fatherland.” [9] Prisoners report that authorities at their facility would “stage public executions fifteen or twenty times” each year.

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